Clinical Trial

Genetic Determinants of ACEI Prodrug Activation

Study Description

Genetic Determinants of ACEI Prodrug Activation

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide for the treatment of essential hypertension, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, and prevention of the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the outcome of ACEI treatment varies significantly between individuals and selected populations. Suboptimal response, therapeutic failure, and significant side effects are commonly documented in patients receiving ACEI therapy. Approximately 80% of the ACEIs available for use in the US are synthesized as esterified prodrugs in order to improve otherwise poor oral bioavailability of the active molecule. The activation of ACEI prodrugs primarily occurs in the liver via metabolic de-esterification of the parent drug. The critical activation step is essential in delivering a successful therapeutic outcome since the active metabolites are approximately 10-1000 times more potent relative to their respective parent compounds. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), the most abundant hydrolase in the liver, is responsible for the activation of ACEI prodrugs in humans. Marked interindividual variability in CES1 expression and activity has been documented, which results in varied therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of many drugs serving as substrates of CES1. Genetic variation of CES1 is considered to be a major factor contributing to variability in CES1 function. The study team proposes to conduct a multiple-dose healthy volunteer study to evaluate the impact of CES1 genetic variation on the activation, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of enalapril, a model ACEI prodrug activated by CES1. The completion of this study will represent a major step towards the establishment of an evidence base from which a more individualized use of ACEI prodrugs can emerge.


Locations Selected Location


Pharmaceutical medication involved Pharmaceutical medication involved
Patients and healthy individuals accepted Patients and healthy individuals accepted

Drug - Enalapril

Study participants in both arms will be treated with 10 mg enalapril orally once daily for seven consecutive days

Additional Information

Official Study Title

Genetic Determinants of ACEI Prodrug Activation

Clinical Trial ID


ParticipAid ID