“Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms and Smoking Relapse”
Background: - Smoking is thought to cause changes in the brain that lead to addiction and craving. Smokers who try to quit experience nicotine withdrawal symptoms that include irritability, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating. These symptoms make it difficult for people to stop smoking. Many people say that they continue smoking to help relieve these symptoms, often within the first week after trying to quit. Researchers want to study what is happening in the brain to cause these symptoms, which may help identify new ways to successfully quit smoking. Objectives: - To study nicotine withdrawal symptoms and brain function in smokers who stop smoking for 36 hours. Eligibility: - Individuals between 18 and 65 years of age who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Participants must be able to stop smoking for 36 hours on two occasions. Design: Phase 1 - This study will involve three visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. - NOT be able to smoke for 36 hours before the two imaging visits. - Wear a nicotine skin patch or a placebo (fake) patch during your 36 hour smoking abstinence period and study visits. - Have your blood drawn to test for levels of stress-related hormones. - Complete multiple MRI scanning sessions that last about 1.5 to 2 hours each. - Undergo EEG (brain waves) recording. - Answer questionnaires about how you think and feel. - Complete various tasks and procedures inside and outside of the MRI scanner. Phase 2 - This study will involve thirteen visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. - Set a quit date and develop a treatment plan with a study therapist. - Take Chantix (varenicline) every day for a period of 12 weeks. - Meet for weekly and biweekly counseling sessions with a therapist. - Answer questionnaires about how you think and feel. Phase 3 - This study will involve three visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. - Complete an MRI scanning session that will last about 20min each visit - Meet with a study staff member on each visit who will ask you questions about your smoking behavior and how you think and feel.
Device - Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a type of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS), has the potential to modify neuronal circuits by application of a subthreshold conductive current through the scalp. Two potential targets for tDCS as a smoking cessation aid are the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a node of the ECN, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a node of the DMN. tDCS can potentially strengthen the control of the ECN through excitatory stimulation of the d ...read more on ClinicalTrials.org
Device - Sham
Identifying Neurobiological Mechanisms That Underlie Acute Nicotine Withdrawal and Drive Early Relapse in Smokers